Cosmetics products are microbiologically high-risk products, except for some products (such as products containing 20% alcohol). Substances that constitute nutrients for microorganisms are abundant in cosmetic products.
Appropriate ambient acidity, temperature, and humidity, which are among the growth factors of microorganisms in cosmetic products, can create a suitable environment for microorganism growth.
Microbiological growth in cosmetic products that exceed the limit leads to the deterioration of the product. In this case, there may be a change in the color, odor, appearance, and fluidity of the product. In addition, the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the product can lead to skin and mucous membrane infections and eye infections.
The European Union contains certain legal obligations in terms of the production of cosmetic products.
Ingredient providers are an indispensable part of cosmetic product safety, and therefore, content analyses should be performed at regular intervals.
Cosmetic safety consists of many important components. The main of these components is listed below.
The microbial quality of cosmetic ingredients is important to the microbial quality of the product.
Cosmetic products during their shelf life must be microbiologically safe
Two different cosmetic product categories are defined in the microbiological quality control limits.
Category 1: Products intended specifically for children under 3 years of age, for use around the eyes and mucous membranes.
Category 2: Other products.
Detection of skin pathogens is very important for cosmetic products and other topical products. These pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans.
Also, E.coli is an indicator of insufficient hygiene in production conditions as an indicator of fecal contamination.
These pathogenic microorganisms should not be found in cosmetic products.
The evaluation of preservative efficacy tests plays an important role in ensuring the safety and consumer acceptance of cosmetic products. Cosmetic products do not have to be sterile. However, ensuring microbial safety is an absolute necessity. Cosmetic items are not required to be sterile. However, ensuring microbial safety is an absolute necessity.
A challenge test is used to determine the protective effect of any product or to investigate various substances as preservatives.
The antimicrobial effect of the preservatives used for this purpose should last during the use and shelf life of the product.
Cosmetic products must be tested for bacteria, fungi, and pathogens to ensure product safety. In addition, a preservative efficacy test should be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the preservative against pathogenic microorganisms.
Current, widely accepted standards for microbiological limits in cosmetics state that the total number of microorganisms per gram or milliliter should generally not be exceeded:> > 1x102 colony-forming units (CFU)/g or ml for cosmetics intended for the eye area, mucous membranes, and for children 3 years of age (i.e., applied to the body surface); and 1x103 CFU/g or ml for all other topical cosmetics. ISO 17516 and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limits are as above.
A cosmetic product may vary depending on environmental conditions and may become unsafe for consumers. Stability testing enables manufacturers to ensure that the product maintains its function, physical properties, and chemical and microbiological quality throughout its shelf life and consumer use.
Product samples are exposed to specific time and temperature conditions to determine their stability and physical integrity without any change in color, odor, or other physical properties. Stability testing allows manufacturers to evaluate product storage conditions and shelf life. Stability testing is required to complete the PIF for products sold in the EU.
Cosmetic products must be tested for bacteria, fungi, and pathogens to ensure product safety. In addition, a preservative efficacy test should be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the preservative against pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, manufacturers should ensure that cosmetic products do not pose hazards to consumers on the skin. These evaluations include a skin irritation test, a patch test, an ophthalmological evaluation, and a hypoallergenic evaluation.
Other than these tests, products, specifically colored cosmetics like lipstick, blush, and eyeliner, should be screened for heavy metals. Heavy metals should be considered primarily regarding preventing negative effects on health in cosmetics. Lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and antimony are all examples of metals that should be avoided. Cosmetic products that employ raw materials and dyes that are toxic to the human body, especially those that impart color, shine, and permanence, can be the source of heavy metals. Heavy metal retention may occur over time as a result of frequent exposure. Heavy metal analysis should be performed by the manufacturers of cosmetic products.
The most important reason a consumer chooses a product is the claim and after-use consequences.
Performance/claim tests are conducted to show that product claims are true.
These tests examine the functionality, durability, and performance of the product.
Everything that is advertised must be proven. For example, if the manufacturer claims that its moisturizer will moisturize for 24 hours", it must prove this in an appropriate test.
In addition, if it is stated on the label that the product does not contain any substance, a related test report must be submitted. For example, if the product label states that it contains no paraben or no silicone, the "paraben-free test" and the "silicone-free test" should be performed.
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