Cosmetics must be safe according to the Cosmetic Product Safety Guidelines. For this safety, some analyzes must be applied in cosmetic products. The tests to be done for a safe cosmetic product are as follows:
Its properties such as color, odor, appearance, pH, density, viscosity must be analyzed according to the nature and technology of the product. For example, some tests have to be applied to prove that fragrance free skin care products are truly fragrance-free. Fragrance free personal care products are the products preferred by people with fragrance allergies. However, potential allergens don't just bother people with smell. We apply a small amount of cosmetic products to make physical analysis. This amount is enough to see allergic reactions and identify allergens.
Stability testing is an important parameter in cosmetic products. Stability of a cosmetic product refers to its capacity to maintain its specified physical and chemical properties. Stability tests can be determined by 2 different methods as long-term and accelerated stability. Accelerated Stability Test:
Accelerated stability test refers to the tests applied under forced conditions compared to normal storage conditions in order to accelerate the chemical and physical degradation of the cosmetic product.
Long-term stability test refers to the stability analyzes in which the physical, chemical, biological and microbiological properties of the cosmetic product are evaluated, including the expected shelf life.
Stability studies, properties and test results showing that a cosmetic product continues to perform its original functions and continues to be safe under normal conditions should be written in the table with test methods and results.
The shelf life is the period in which a product can fulfill its initial functions by storing it under normal conditions. Cosmetic products planned to enter the market must be safe for human health during the specified shelf life under the specified storage conditions. This is very important not only for sensitive skin, skin irritation, but also for the general health of the users. Because personal care products that are not suitable for many uses or expired can adversely affect very important systems of the body, such as the immune system. In other words, cosmetic products offered for sale must be safe for human health during the specified shelf life, under the specified storage conditions.
Features such as the composition, formulation, packaging, and use of cosmetic products are the determining factors in the stability tests in order to see their durability in storage conditions before opening the package or during the usage period after opening.
Stability tests are performed on the final packaged product. The storage conditions and working period determined during the test process include the storage, transportation and use of the product.
Stability tests generally check changes in some parameters. These parameters are as follows:
Heavy metal analyzes should be made due to the raw materials used in products such as blush and lipstick, which are colored cosmetic products. Heavy metal analyzes required in cosmetics are lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and antimony. Heavy metals are substances that can be found naturally in water and on the earth. At the same time, their amount is constantly increasing in the environment because of industrial development. Considering their harm to human health, they are tried to be kept under control in the cosmetics sector as well as in all sectors.
They can be found as natural ingredients at certain levels in cosmetic products. However, if cosmetic products come into direct contact with the skin and the skin absorbs the product, they may cause adverse situations.
Heavy metal tests are applied in cosmetic products such as shampoo, hand soap, make-up materials, nail polish, hand cream, lotions, lipstick.
Heavy metals such as Molybdenum, Nickel, Potassium, Selenium, Cesium, Sodium, Strontium, Thallium, Tellurium, Vanadium, lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, antimony, especially Aluminum, Copper, Barium, Beryllium, Boron, Zinc, Iron, Gallium, Silver, Tin, Calcium, Cobalt, Chromium, Lithium, Magnesium, Manganese in cosmetic products due to their harm to human health.
If there are statements such as “paraben-free”, “silicone-free”, “phthalate-free” on the package of the product, it is obligatory to have the analysis done. As the use of cosmetic products increases, these products have both benefits and harms in terms of human health. Consumers have become more conscious with the increasing interest in natural cosmetic products in recent years.
Principles have been determined about all preparations or substances that are intended to protect or keep in good condition and their classification, packaging information and inspections of cosmetics in the "Cosmetic Regulation". Cosmetic companies offer their products for sale with some claims in order to show that they are producing according to this regulation.
Cosmetic products must be microbiologically safe. Microbiological analysis is important for all cosmetic products except for a few low-risk cosmetics like hair dyes. Baby products and ones that come into contact with the eye area are much more risky. It is necessary to perform total bacteria analyzes.
Challenge tests are tests that show the effectiveness of the preservatives used in the product against microorganisms. Cosmetic products must remain microbiologically stable during the shelf life before opening the package. Preservatives are added to cosmetic products to ensure microbiological stability. Challenge test is applied to see the performance of the preservatives used against microbial growth of a cosmetic product. Cosmetic products are subjected to an artificial contamination process in the laboratory.
The following microorganism strains are used within the scope of the Challenge test.
Antimicrobial protection of cosmetic products can be evaluated by counting microorganisms on the 7th, 14th and 28th days.
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